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The labor landscape in Cluj-Napoca

November 2019

An outline of the labor landscape in Cluj-Napoca is offered by the first research reports in Cluj Future of Work.

The first results of the research on the changes affecting the labor market in the key sectors of the Cluj economy have been published. Studies have been carried out under the Cluj Future of Work project, financed through the Urban Innovative Actions program, which sets to analyze and test ways in which the city can prepare for the changes that the future will bring to the labor market. They have been commissioned by Cluj Cultural Centre, in its role of implementation partner of the Cluj Future of Work project. On the basis of the feedback on the methodology and intermediate results of the project, an update to these researches will be carried out from September 2020 to May 2021.

Purpose and conclusions of the researches

1. ‘Culturepreneurs. The competitiveness of cultural and creative industries in Cluj-Napoca and its metropolitan area within the European context.’ Authors: Ovidiu OLTEAN (PhD Student at the Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences (FSPAC), ‘Babeș-Bolyai’ University (UBB) of Cluj-Napoca), Daniela Angi (PhD Researcher FSPAC, UBB), Alexandru Paul (Lecturer FSPAC, UBB), Bogdan Radu (Lecturer FSPAC, UBB), Maria H. Pozsar (MA at Central European University), István Szakáts (Alt-Art Foundation), Daiana Balazs (MA at FSPAC, UBB), Ramona Măniceanu (MA at FSPAC, UBB), Daniel Daniliuc (BA at FSPAC, UBB)

The purpose of the research was to establish an overall view on the cultural and creative industries in Cluj-Napoca and the metropolitan area to identify its strategic challenges and to assess its competitiveness at European level.

The study found that:

  • Specialized courses in management, marketing, funding, and promotion would be beneficial for the cultural industry.


  • The cultural sector needs to develop skills in areas different from their initial training. There is a need to create a network of specialists in different domains who can contribute to the development of complementary competences.


  • The cultural and artistic industries must be prioritized by local authorities in order to avoid marginalization and loss of talents.


  • The sustainable development of the cultural industry can be achieved only by creating synergies with other industries of production and institutions of higher education. These synergies should be designed to counteract the unfairness of the financing, and the precarity.


2. ‘Work in culture and the culture of work. The changing trends in how work is organized. Case studies with regard to the work in culture and informal work.’ Authors: Pop Cristian (Lecturer at the Faculty of Sociology and Social Work (FSAS), ‘Babeș-Bolyai’ University (UBB), Chiș Anca (FSAS, UBB), Mihály Zoli (PhD Student at FSAS, UBB), Pop Oana (PhD Student at FSAS, BBU)

The purpose of the research was to identify the main characteristics of the flexible work carried out in Cluj-Napoca and the metropolitan area, and of the people who perform it.

The study found that:

  • In many cases, the work procedures and the absence of adequate rules for unconventional work put artists and independent cultural workers in a precarious position.


  • There is a significant need for an inclusive infrastructure (cultural policies and financing mechanisms) for independent agents in the cultural and creative industries.


  • The typical work conditions of the culture industry, such as flexibility, mobility, the multitude of projects and specializations, are expanding quickly to other industries. Thus, understanding the solutions for the cultural and creative industries may bring many benefits to the future of work.


  • The value creation process in the cultural industry is unevenly supported, impacting negatively the stability and sustainability of the industry.


3. ‘The impact of automation and digitalization on the labor and capital in Cluj-Napoca and the metropolitan area’ Authors: Norbert Petrovici (Centrul Interdisciplinar pentru Știința Datelor (CISD), ‘Babeș-Bolyai’ University (UBB)), Codruța Mare (CISD, UBB), Florin Faje (CISD, UBB), Oana Pop (CISD, UBB), Titus Man (CISD, UBB), Zoltán Mihály (CISD, UBB)

The purpose of the research was to determine the impact of automation and digitalization on the work force in Cluj-Napoca and the metropolitan area.

The study found that:

  • 57% of jobs have a risk of automation, which is similar to the percentage calculated at European level.


  • Routinary manual activities are the most affected by this change; however, the replacement of human work force with the robotic one will most likely occur at the level of tasks and not jobs.


  • Employees whose jobs are likely to be automated are the ones who will bear the costs of these changes and, therefore, will need support.


  • The economic ecosystem of Cluj-Napoca needs to create added value at local level.


  • Public platforms for big data may support the changing process of work and may ensure a smooth transition into its new forms.


The Intercommunity Development Association Cluj Metropolitan Area, an implementation partner for Cluj Future of Work, within the Informal Work scenario, has also commissioned through the project a team of researchers from ‘Babeș-Bolyai’ University to conduct the study ‘The assessment of informal work practices at the level of Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area, with particular emphasis on the segregated area of Pata Rât’.

The research reports and their summaries can be accessed through the links beneath.

Culturepreneurs. Competitivitatea industriilor culturale și creative din Cluj-Napoca și zona metropolitană în context european.



Munca în cultură și cultura muncii. Tendințele de transformare ale modului de organizare a muncii. Studii de caz cu privire la munca în cultură și munca informală.



Impactul automatizării și digitalizării asupra muncii și capitalului în Cluj-Napoca și zona metropolitană